It’s October Harvest Time

Happy October! We’ve said goodbye to 90+ degree days and a few rains have fallen. It was a very dry and warm summer, but now it’s time to get ready for indoor activities and some basic outdoor maintenance tasks:

  • Plant spring bulbs now.
  • The end of October is usually the time that you can stop mowing, since when it gets cool enough the lawn will stop growing. Occasionally there is a fall when the lawn needs a mow or two into November.
  • Great month to transplant.
  • Bait for slugs during rainy periods. This will keep them from making more babies for spring!
  • Keep leaves raked off lawn to prevent smothering/damaging the grass.
  • Spread bark mulch now over any areas that may be exposed this winter. This will prevent erosion and keep weeds from growing.
  • This is a wonderful time of the year to plant new plants!
  • Mulch tender plants: fuchsias, cannas, dahlias, and callas.

For the more serious gardeners among us:

  • Pick green tomatoes and ripen indoors if frost threatens.
  • Pull and dry onions for storage. Keep at 32-35 degrees F, in a dry area.
  • Harvest sunflower heads; use for birdseed or roast for a healthy, crunchy snack food.
  • Dig and store potatoes; keep in darkness with moderate humidity at around 40 degrees F.
  • Harvest squash and pumpkins as the month progresses; Place them in dry area at 55-60 degrees F.
  • Harvest squash and pumpkins; keep in dry area at 55-60 degrees F.
  • Harvest and immediately dry filberts and walnuts; dry at 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Harvest and store apples; keep at about 40 degrees F with moderate humidity.
  • Spray peach trees for Coryneum blight with copper fungicides; spray cherry and prune trees for bacterial canker with copper spray.
  • Dig and store these annuals; geraniums (Pelargoniums) and tuberous begonias if you do not want to have to purchase them again next year.
  • Propagate chrysanthemum and fuchsia stem-cuttings.
  • Dig and store geraniums and tuberous begonias.
  • Plant garlic for harvesting next summer.
  • Harvest the saffron from your saffron crocuses when they begin blooming late in the month.
  • Begin manipulating light to force Christmas cactus to bloom in late December.
  • Store any garden chemicals and fertilizers in a safe, dry place out of the reach of children.
  • Clean and prepare the greenhouse for winter gardening activities.
  • Bait and trap moles. This is a most challenging undertaking. I have learned that the most technique is using crushing tunnel line traps. Ugh!
  • Rake and destroy the disease-infested leaves of apple, cherry, rose, keep the rest of the leaves as compost.

Around Winterbloom

Here’s another herald of fall – we’ve wrapped up the harvest of our luscious Goji berries (Lycium barbarum). Gojis set little purplish blooms in summer and mature their fruit in mid-late summer and early fall here in the Willamette Valley.  Apparently, the summer heat helps them to have a good fruit set. The fruit is sweet and mild tasting. It’s very easy to pick, and when they’re in full fruit the tall canes brighten up our garden with their hanging orange red berries. They remind me of small peppers, and in fact, as a member of the Solanaceae family, Goji berries are related to tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants and peppers.

The Goji is self-fruitful, which means it doesn’t need two varieties to set fruit. It also loves full sun, so survey your garden before planting. Avoid any shade at all.

The northwest Goji is from China and can grow in poor dry soil. I have found that it does not need much water in our climate; however, watering does help the fruit to stay nice and plump. like many berries, the growth does need to be staked. I prune out the canes that drape over to the ground in the spring, and tie them to a 10 feet tall pole for an eye-pleasing fountain of foliage. Since the tips of the canes seem to be where the fruit sets; tying it up works for me, since it allows the canes to hang down to where the berries can be easily reached for picking.   

I find that Goji responds well to compost. Having a good surface mulch helps to hold in the compost and moisture, and keep down the weeds. I water deeply once a week or about twice a month in the summer. It is deciduous in the winter and looks like a giant witch’s broom. I do not think that the plant itself is beautiful, however a cane in full fruit is stunning!

 

 

 

Late Summer in Oregon Means Keep Watering

As I write this the news of the day is the historical total solar eclipse. Here in Tigard, we’re experiencing more than 99% of totality for two minutes.

Lacking most of the sunlight for two minutes won’t stunt the growth of your plantings, for sure, but lack of rainfall during this time of the year definitely could. it is particularly important to water your potted plants every day. They dry out much more quickly than your “grounded” flora.

Our vegetable garden loves all this heat and we’ve been harvesting. This year, we are growing tomatoes, broccoli, cucumbers, asparagus, rhubarb, golden berries, goji berries, figs, raspberries and herbs.

The biochar that we’ve been using along with natural fertilizers has caused our garden to really produce. We are very happy with the results.

Here I am about to spread some biochar on the rhubarb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other late August gardening chores

  • Yes, keep weeding.
  • Mow regularly.
  • Don’t forget to water. The best time to water is in the early morning using approximately one inch a week on the lawn. Use more if it has been really hot and dry. Beds need half that much.
  • Monitor veggie garden irrigation closely so crops do not dry out.
  • Fertilize cucumbers, summer squash, and broccoli, while harvesting to maintain production. Harvest vegetables when edible to stimulate further production.
  • Control caterpillars on leafy vegetables or geraniums and petunias, as needed, with Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT). It is a natural product
  • Use mulch to protect ornamentals and garden plants from hot weather damage. For spider mite control on some ornamentals, hose off foliage once a day for three days once a month. Arborvitae hedges are the most susceptible.
  • You may want to control fleas in lawns with spray this month if you have outdoor pets.Well, speaking of heat and lack of rain, here are a few plants that actually like such conditions: Crape Myrtle (a China native), Pomegranates (thought to have originated in Iran) and Hesperaloe parviflora (native to the Southwest). Pomegranates grow well here, where they can bake, but they don’t produce fruit. They do produce orange flowers, and bright yellow foliage in the fall.

Around Winterbloom:

Well, speaking of heat and lack of rain, here are a few plants that actually like such conditions: Crape Myrtle (a China native), Pomegranates (thought to have originated in Iran) and Hesperaloe parviflora (native to the Southwest).

The Crape Myrtle tree has amazing bark, most commonly bright pink. Its blossoms usually burst forth in late August or September. The leaves turn to orange yellow flame in the fall. Crapes hate shade during the growing season.

Pomegranates grow well here, where they can bake, but they don’t produce fruit. They do produce orange flowers, and bright yellow foliage in the fall.

 

 

Please enjoy this glimpse of our Hesperaloe parviflora. It thrives during our dry Oregon summers, tempting hummingbirds with wands of coral blooms and pleasing our eyes with evergreen foliage.

 

 


 

 

Take a Break From Your Hammock to Tend to Your July Gardening Tasks

Summer has arrived and it’s fantastic! Here is a timely list of tasks that you can do in the cooler early morning and late evening hours, because the hot afternoons are for sitting back with your favorite iced drink and enjoying the sunshine! Here are our suggestions for beautifying your landscape in July:Prune shrubs after they have bloomed.

  • Prune shrubs after they have bloomed.
  • Weed.
  • This is the month that we fertilize lawns with an organic/natural fertilizer.
  • Check for root weevil adults in rhododendrons and azaleas and either use nematodes for larvae or sticky traps for the adults.
  • Mulch, if you have not already, to conserve soil moisture with bark or other products.
  • Watch for signs of spider mites on arborvitae hedges (dusty looking foliage, loss of color, presence of tiny mites), and wash infested areas with water. Pick a day when you can do this once a day for three days in a row. Repeat this same practice each month during the dry season. In other words, act like a heavy summer rain and rain on their parade!
  • You may dig spring bulbs when tops have died down. (Divide and store or replant if overcrowded).
  • Lawns (probably) need one inch of water per week this month.
  • Stake tall growing perennials as needed.
  • End of month: prune raspberries, boysenberries, other cane berries after harvest.
  • Check for scale insects on camellias, holly, and maple trees.
  • Check leafy vegetables for caterpillar attack.
  • Mound soil up around base of potatoes, gather and eat a few “new” potatoes from each hill.Mid-summer plantings of beets, bush beans, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli, lettuce, kale.
  • Cover blueberry bushes with netting to keep robins off.
  • Encourage beneficial insects by planting members of the sunflower family (including zinnias, marigolds, Jerusalem artichokes and others)
  • Stake tomatoes, watch for blight (prune for air circulation, pick off affected leaves).
Our broccoli and leaf lettuce are doing nicely!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summer time and the living is blue

Our garden is at just about peak lush this month, so it’s a good time to illustrate one of my core design principles: Plant for color, texture and height contrasts.

I love the cooling effect of what I call the “blues” of selectively placed plants such as this Agapanthus, seen here through a screen of a coral Hesperaloe. These colors are in turn picked up by the orange pot filled with blue and orange balls of color and accented by the pink Echinacea or Cone Flower and the creamy white of the Lilies. Planning for vibrant layers gives the human eye lots to do and is refreshing to our spirit.

 

Exit Rain, Enter Weeds: June Gardening Tasks

As I look out at our Winterbloom landscape, I see abundant growth, color and wildlife activity, especially birds. I think the same Robin comes each spring to build a nest in the tree visible from our office window. Well, enough bird watching. Here are some June tasks for you:

  • This is the best month to plant the warm season annuals of flowers or vegetables: Eggplant, Tomato, Peppers, Corn, Basil, melons etc.
  • Mow regularly; set your lawn mower at the highest setting that you want for the rest of the summer until October. The longer grass helps to shade the roots and keeps the grass greener and healthier.
  • Keep up on the weeds. The rainy season is over and it will soon not be so much work.
  • Water as needed, one inch per week at least on the lawn, and about half an inch on the shrubs, is a standard rule of thumb.
  • Slug bait is still important to put out. Try to use safe pet bait.
  • Prune flowering shrubs or perennials after they bloom, as needed.
  • Check the leaves of your Rhodies and Azaleas to see if you need to do any weevil control such as nematodes or insect tape. If you see notches chewed out of the foliage, these pests have been there.
  • Also, check to see if you have lace bug damage on the leaves. It usually shows up later in the summer. They suck the Chlorophyll out of the leaf cells and make the leaves look hideous. They can be somewhat controlled by a predator called Green or Brown Lace Wings, which can be purchased locally.
  • If you want to make your Rhodies bloom more and look neater, it is time to dead head them.
  • Continue to take care of coddling moths and scab on apples and pears. Check to see how many times and how often.
  • It is time to thin out the fruits on pears and apples.
  • Spray for fruit flies on cherries.
  • Check for Aphids and cabbage worms and take action if needed on veggies or roses.

 

Around Winterbloom

This moment of peace is courtesy of Winterbloom and the European ground orchid

The Dactylorhiza maculata, or European ground orchid, requires relatively little care and adds a delicate touch of color and verticality to our planting beds.

Give them a half-day of sun and they’ll grow in, through and around your other plants.

They like our Willamette Valley climate of wet winters and dry summers, so consider giving them a try!

 

 

Brew Pub for Slugs?

Salt is good for killing slugs on the patio or sidewalk, but it kills plants in the garden. Some of our clients have used beer for their planting beds. Don’t waste the good stuff on them, though; buy the cheapest rot-gut you can find and pour it into shallow plastic tops or jar lids.  You should see results (we’ll leave it to your imagination what that means) by the next morning.

The Frogs Say It’s Spring!

You may be wondering, is it really spring?

Frog choruses aside, the temps have been below normal; a windstorm toppled fences and trees and thousands lost their power. Fear not! Nature is stirring. So, it’s time to gear up to:

  • Bait for slugs (and snails)!
  • Weed regularly now; this will pay off later.
  • Mow regularly and set your lawnmower higher than last month.
  • Leave the foliage of spring flowering bulbs and only cut off the seedpods after the blooms finish. (The foliage needs to recharge the bulbs for next year’s blooms.) I just wait and cut the foliage when it is yellow.
  • Prune and shape spring-blooming shrubs and trees right after the blossoms fade.
  • Plant gladiolas and dahlias for summer bloom.
  • Prepare the veggie garden for spring planting.
  • These vegetables may be planted this month if your garden is ready: Peas, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chard, chives, endive, kohlrabi, leeks, and lettuce, onion sets, parsnips, radishes, and rhubarb, turnips
  • Some early broccoli varieties that I have found successful are: Green Comet and Waltham 29
  • Check strawberries for spittlebugs and aphids; if present wash them off.
  • If spraying for apple scab; use lime/sulfur.
  • Control rose diseases such as black spot and mildew by removing infected leaves, and prune for air circulation.

Around Winterbloom

Peony Yachiyo-tsubaki – Japanese Tree Peony

Yes, this Peony is called a tree, though it grows in a shrub like manner. It graces one of our front yard planting beds and is adding a delicate pop of color.

This variety has double to semi-double flowers with silky pink petals accented by bright yellow centers. The bronze foliage transitions to red in winter.

It is a deciduous perennial that is long lived and well suited for your mixed borders or woodland settings. It needs regular watering, which means weekly, or more often in the summertime heat.


 

 

Thanks for Being a Good Neighbor

It warmed my heart to receive this thank you message: “Phil, I want to thank you for donating plants for our yard. They are planted and growing! They have brought me so much happiness already. Thank you for being the Lord’s hands; also, thank you for raising a wonderful daughter. She as your kind heart. Serenity has been one of my greatest blessings since moving to this neighborhood.”

And here’s another: “Thank you Phil.  I cannot tell you what a pleasure it was to work with you, Miriam, Eric, and the entire Winterbloom team.  My hope is that Peter and I will be able to enjoy the tranquility of our yards for years to come.  Peter has not seen the completed project but I have conveyed to him how awesome everything looks.   Thank you again for the roses and for making the change.”

Time To Visit Your Favorite Garden Center

Break out the garden tools and visit your local garden center to discover what’s new

For landscaping, visit Winterbloom Inc. Phil Thornburg, owner, said his business offers landscape design primarily for residential customers. “Our focus is sustanability,” Thornburg said, adding that he looks at texturing, color and layering when doing a landscape design. With his landscaping, Thornbur’s hope is to create the feeling of outdoor “rooms” and spaces.

View the rest of the article HERE

Three Northwest Garden tours, thousands of plants, four favorites: Peruvian Lily, a red-hot poker, horned champion, and Embothrium coccineum

Three tours, more than a dozen gardens, thousands of plants: That’s been my life for the past month. And it didn’t once rain. I’m a bit overstimulated, but in the best of ways. So many plants are dancing in my head, I’ve been making a list. On top are four from Phil Thornburg’s garden. Phil owns Winterbloom design firm (503-598-0219, www.winterbloominc.com) and is, obviously, a collector. It took me two seconds — just long enough to glance into the garden and see Embothrium coccineum  in full, fiery bloom — to know that. It was a mouth-gaping experience.

Read the rest of the article HERE

Creating an outdoor room

An outdoor room does not require a lot of space. It simply needs to seem like a special place. Here are eight ways to create that sensation:

  1. Different levels: A higher and lower area either in a deck or in the ground, defines two rooms. A different level on a deck, for instance, can separate a smaller more intimate area for a hot tub, away from the larger part of the deck used for group entertaining. Raised beds or terraces with walls also create separations between spaces.
  2. Shrubs set in patterns: Any shrubs or collection of tall perennials and grasses can create a wall and/or privacy between spaces. Sheared neatly trimmed linear hedges create a more formal feeling for a space. Lightly trimmed softer spreading hedges or simply plants in a row which are not sheared make a room feel more informal.
  3. Fencing materials: Solid fencing creates more privacy. Open fencing or short fencing, defines a space or room without completely enclosing it.
  4. Small structures: Benches, arbors and paths all can define a space. For instance, a path leading to a bench tucked into a flowerbed creates a small but private space. A simple arbor can define an entry to a whole new room.
  5. Large structures: A gazebo is an instant room in itself. Decks and patios can provide multiple spaces or rooms for cooking, entertaining, or relaxing. It is most often practical to keep structures, near or against the house. This makes it feel like an outdoor room of the house. On the other hand, separating defined spaces begins creating a whole new experience.
  6. Outdoor ceilings: pergolas or awnings provide a protected space to relax and sit for a while. A tree provides the same feeling.
  7. Corners: By creating corners in a path or around the side of the house, new rooms unfold. By adding a spot to linger you can suddenly add a new view to an existing room or create a whole new room.
  8. Color, fragrance, plant or plant composition as focal point, music, art: By adding some, or all, of these elements you can add to a room’s décor, furnish it, or possibly create a new portion to the room itself. These will add the unique or finishing touches to your room. Try not to overdo art or focal points. One piece of art might be wonderful but a row of them, (dwarves for instance) might send you straight to a children’s amusement park.

Mulch, Schmultz

Recently I walked with two clients while discussing their harshly sterile, bare, sloping, side yard; where soil was eroding down onto the public sidewalk. It was slippery and muddy and very unattractive.

One of them brought up the idea of a nice boulder retaining wall set next to the sidewalk, which would help to hold back the soil.

The other remarked “But that would cost a lot of money and we are not ready to spend that right now, even though it might solve a lot of the problem with our sloping, ugly, side yard and would look good to the neighbors.”

The slope was not so steep that it would not be walkable, and they could have installed a lawn to hold the soil back from washing onto the sidewalk. However, they did not want to plant grass. The idea of mowing a sloping side lawn, which they would not use, did not appeal to them. I suggested a much less expensive option of placing a two to three-inch layer of bark mulch on the bare soil.

They wondered what I meant by mulch.

Mulch is any material placed on the ground which, when spread around in a fairly uniform layer, will insulate, protect or enrich the soil. Examples of mulch are: leaves, tree bark, compost, shredded paper, wood chips, wood shavings, shredded cardboard or nut hulls/shells.

Here are some examples:

Compost mulch will enrich the soil by feeding its resident population of micro flora and fauna; preventing the bare soil from eroding; helping to retain moisture in the dry periods; and suffocating weeds. It is a temporary fix however, because most good compost will be quickly broken down and eaten by the micro flora and fauna. Its nutritional benefits will then be available to the roots of the plants underground, but the erosion protection, the retention of moisture and particularly the positive effect of the weed suffocation will be gone very quickly. It is a common mulch used around plants with a final layer of bark mulch placed on top.

Leaf mulch is as you may guess, a collection of fall leaves that will quite possibly last the winter and into early spring. They will provide erosion protection during the rainy season and if they last long enough into the early part of the dry season, provide moisture retention as well. However, leaf mulch is also generally temporary. Shredded fall leaves or thinly placed grass clippings are excellent as far as nutrition goes, but have an even shorter life span for the other functions wanted from mulch, as this product is the most delicious to micro flora and fauna.

Straw mulch/hay mulch is occasionally available as an option. It is moderately slow to break down, but it carries many, many seeds. Therefore, it might best be used in a large commercial setting where there is a large expanse of soil that needs to be protected from erosion, but the owner is not picky about every kind of meadow plant imaginable germinating everywhere. This is not a product ever recommended for suburban planting beds.

Bark mulch can be excellent on all accounts and comes in various colors, grind sizes and tree types.

  • The most common type is fresh Douglas fir. It is reddish in color and slow to break down. It is the least expensive of the bark products. The micro flora and fauna must work hard to break it down and, as they do, they extract nitrogen from the air and soil. That’s why, with this type of bark, you’ll need to use a fertilizer with nitrogen to keep your plant leaves from yellowing. Another negative aspect of Douglas fir bark is its tendency to be splintery. Dark fir bark has less splinters and is a dark blackish red. This is so because it is already partially broken down and not fresh. Therefore, it does not rob as much nitrogen from the soil, but of course it also does not last as long.
  • Bark nuggets are usually derived from pine bark and provide the same results as red Doug fir bark but do not offer any splinters. Some people like this look, but one must place it rather thickly to provide good moisture retention during the dry season; as there are usually no smaller parts to create a sealing blanket, just bigger chunks. It is more expensive in the Willamette Valley, than the other bark products, since it is normally trucked in from eastern Oregon.
  • Hemlock bark, either fresh or dark is another option. It has almost no splinters. As in all bark products it can be found as fresh or dark, and in either a fine, medium or coarse “grind.” That means the average size of the material itself. Fine has a very smooth look on the ground but can wash or blow away, as well as break down more easily than the medium or the coarse. Medium is the most common as it has a mix of fine, medium and some coarse. Coarse grind appears very chunky on the surface of the soil but is the slowest to break down. Again, fresh hemlock breaks down more slowly than dark hemlock bark. Winterbloom’s most commonly requested mulch is medium dark hemlock, as it seems to have the best of all qualities. It is also the most expensive of all the bark products.

Nut hulls such as filbert (Hazelnut) shells, may be used as a mulch. in the Willamette Valley this is most available from filbert orchards or nut drying operations. It is a product that breaks down very slowly and is often used for paths as an organic option to crushed gravel. It has a coarse texture. A more expensive, but very fragrant and tempting product, is cocoa bean hulls. It has been found however, to be attractive, to dogs. As it can damage their intestines, it is now being discouraged as a mulch for dog owners.

Chips are a not uncommon mulch. It is coarsely chopped debris derived from tree or shrub removal. How long it lasts depends on whether it has a higher concentration of wood or of leaves. I have found that it is very similar in effect, but not look, to fresh fir bark. It does not have the fine splinters of fir but it also does not have fir’s nice uniform effect; rather a wild tousled appearance with many textures and sizes. Winterbloom generally uses this only to mulch natural areas or for woodland paths. We do not generally use it in suburban planting beds.

Cedar or wood shavings from a wood or lumber mill is another option for a mulch. It breaks down very slowly and is quite soft in function and appearance. It is often used as a surface for play areas as it is not splintery or rough. It is not used as a mulch in suburban planting beds.

Garden mulch from a recycle yard is also a common mulch that is very reasonably priced for planting beds. It is the ground and partially composted debris from city and suburban yards. It is black in color, has more of an odor than the bark products, but breaks down a little faster than the medium dark hemlock.

The composts, chips, garden mulch and all the types of bark may be blown onto planting beds. This is an easier way to spread the mulch versus using wheelbarrows, rakes, forks and shovels. It is also more economical than paying a landscaper to do the same task. Also, if you use a reputable company to blow on the mulch, they will generally clean up well and only the smallest, most fragile plants may be damaged or killed. These should be temporarily protected with overturned pots by you, the homeowner or designer.