Category Archives: Gardening

It’s October Harvest Time

Happy October! We’ve said goodbye to 90+ degree days and a few rains have fallen. It was a very dry and warm summer, but now it’s time to get ready for indoor activities and some basic outdoor maintenance tasks:

  • Plant spring bulbs now.
  • The end of October is usually the time that you can stop mowing, since when it gets cool enough the lawn will stop growing. Occasionally there is a fall when the lawn needs a mow or two into November.
  • Great month to transplant.
  • Bait for slugs during rainy periods. This will keep them from making more babies for spring!
  • Keep leaves raked off lawn to prevent smothering/damaging the grass.
  • Spread bark mulch now over any areas that may be exposed this winter. This will prevent erosion and keep weeds from growing.
  • This is a wonderful time of the year to plant new plants!
  • Mulch tender plants: fuchsias, cannas, dahlias, and callas.

For the more serious gardeners among us:

  • Pick green tomatoes and ripen indoors if frost threatens.
  • Pull and dry onions for storage. Keep at 32-35 degrees F, in a dry area.
  • Harvest sunflower heads; use for birdseed or roast for a healthy, crunchy snack food.
  • Dig and store potatoes; keep in darkness with moderate humidity at around 40 degrees F.
  • Harvest squash and pumpkins as the month progresses; Place them in dry area at 55-60 degrees F.
  • Harvest squash and pumpkins; keep in dry area at 55-60 degrees F.
  • Harvest and immediately dry filberts and walnuts; dry at 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Harvest and store apples; keep at about 40 degrees F with moderate humidity.
  • Spray peach trees for Coryneum blight with copper fungicides; spray cherry and prune trees for bacterial canker with copper spray.
  • Dig and store these annuals; geraniums (Pelargoniums) and tuberous begonias if you do not want to have to purchase them again next year.
  • Propagate chrysanthemum and fuchsia stem-cuttings.
  • Dig and store geraniums and tuberous begonias.
  • Plant garlic for harvesting next summer.
  • Harvest the saffron from your saffron crocuses when they begin blooming late in the month.
  • Begin manipulating light to force Christmas cactus to bloom in late December.
  • Store any garden chemicals and fertilizers in a safe, dry place out of the reach of children.
  • Clean and prepare the greenhouse for winter gardening activities.
  • Bait and trap moles. This is a most challenging undertaking. I have learned that the most technique is using crushing tunnel line traps. Ugh!
  • Rake and destroy the disease-infested leaves of apple, cherry, rose, keep the rest of the leaves as compost.

Around Winterbloom

Here’s another herald of fall – we’ve wrapped up the harvest of our luscious Goji berries (Lycium barbarum). Gojis set little purplish blooms in summer and mature their fruit in mid-late summer and early fall here in the Willamette Valley.  Apparently, the summer heat helps them to have a good fruit set. The fruit is sweet and mild tasting. It’s very easy to pick, and when they’re in full fruit the tall canes brighten up our garden with their hanging orange red berries. They remind me of small peppers, and in fact, as a member of the Solanaceae family, Goji berries are related to tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants and peppers.

The Goji is self-fruitful, which means it doesn’t need two varieties to set fruit. It also loves full sun, so survey your garden before planting. Avoid any shade at all.

The northwest Goji is from China and can grow in poor dry soil. I have found that it does not need much water in our climate; however, watering does help the fruit to stay nice and plump. like many berries, the growth does need to be staked. I prune out the canes that drape over to the ground in the spring, and tie them to a 10 feet tall pole for an eye-pleasing fountain of foliage. Since the tips of the canes seem to be where the fruit sets; tying it up works for me, since it allows the canes to hang down to where the berries can be easily reached for picking.   

I find that Goji responds well to compost. Having a good surface mulch helps to hold in the compost and moisture, and keep down the weeds. I water deeply once a week or about twice a month in the summer. It is deciduous in the winter and looks like a giant witch’s broom. I do not think that the plant itself is beautiful, however a cane in full fruit is stunning!

 

 

 

Late Summer in Oregon Means Keep Watering

As I write this the news of the day is the historical total solar eclipse. Here in Tigard, we’re experiencing more than 99% of totality for two minutes.

Lacking most of the sunlight for two minutes won’t stunt the growth of your plantings, for sure, but lack of rainfall during this time of the year definitely could. it is particularly important to water your potted plants every day. They dry out much more quickly than your “grounded” flora.

Our vegetable garden loves all this heat and we’ve been harvesting. This year, we are growing tomatoes, broccoli, cucumbers, asparagus, rhubarb, golden berries, goji berries, figs, raspberries and herbs.

The biochar that we’ve been using along with natural fertilizers has caused our garden to really produce. We are very happy with the results.

Here I am about to spread some biochar on the rhubarb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other late August gardening chores

  • Yes, keep weeding.
  • Mow regularly.
  • Don’t forget to water. The best time to water is in the early morning using approximately one inch a week on the lawn. Use more if it has been really hot and dry. Beds need half that much.
  • Monitor veggie garden irrigation closely so crops do not dry out.
  • Fertilize cucumbers, summer squash, and broccoli, while harvesting to maintain production. Harvest vegetables when edible to stimulate further production.
  • Control caterpillars on leafy vegetables or geraniums and petunias, as needed, with Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT). It is a natural product
  • Use mulch to protect ornamentals and garden plants from hot weather damage. For spider mite control on some ornamentals, hose off foliage once a day for three days once a month. Arborvitae hedges are the most susceptible.
  • You may want to control fleas in lawns with spray this month if you have outdoor pets.Well, speaking of heat and lack of rain, here are a few plants that actually like such conditions: Crape Myrtle (a China native), Pomegranates (thought to have originated in Iran) and Hesperaloe parviflora (native to the Southwest). Pomegranates grow well here, where they can bake, but they don’t produce fruit. They do produce orange flowers, and bright yellow foliage in the fall.

Around Winterbloom:

Well, speaking of heat and lack of rain, here are a few plants that actually like such conditions: Crape Myrtle (a China native), Pomegranates (thought to have originated in Iran) and Hesperaloe parviflora (native to the Southwest).

The Crape Myrtle tree has amazing bark, most commonly bright pink. Its blossoms usually burst forth in late August or September. The leaves turn to orange yellow flame in the fall. Crapes hate shade during the growing season.

Pomegranates grow well here, where they can bake, but they don’t produce fruit. They do produce orange flowers, and bright yellow foliage in the fall.

 

 

Please enjoy this glimpse of our Hesperaloe parviflora. It thrives during our dry Oregon summers, tempting hummingbirds with wands of coral blooms and pleasing our eyes with evergreen foliage.

 

 


 

 

Take a Break From Your Hammock to Tend to Your July Gardening Tasks

Summer has arrived and it’s fantastic! Here is a timely list of tasks that you can do in the cooler early morning and late evening hours, because the hot afternoons are for sitting back with your favorite iced drink and enjoying the sunshine! Here are our suggestions for beautifying your landscape in July:Prune shrubs after they have bloomed.

  • Prune shrubs after they have bloomed.
  • Weed.
  • This is the month that we fertilize lawns with an organic/natural fertilizer.
  • Check for root weevil adults in rhododendrons and azaleas and either use nematodes for larvae or sticky traps for the adults.
  • Mulch, if you have not already, to conserve soil moisture with bark or other products.
  • Watch for signs of spider mites on arborvitae hedges (dusty looking foliage, loss of color, presence of tiny mites), and wash infested areas with water. Pick a day when you can do this once a day for three days in a row. Repeat this same practice each month during the dry season. In other words, act like a heavy summer rain and rain on their parade!
  • You may dig spring bulbs when tops have died down. (Divide and store or replant if overcrowded).
  • Lawns (probably) need one inch of water per week this month.
  • Stake tall growing perennials as needed.
  • End of month: prune raspberries, boysenberries, other cane berries after harvest.
  • Check for scale insects on camellias, holly, and maple trees.
  • Check leafy vegetables for caterpillar attack.
  • Mound soil up around base of potatoes, gather and eat a few “new” potatoes from each hill.Mid-summer plantings of beets, bush beans, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli, lettuce, kale.
  • Cover blueberry bushes with netting to keep robins off.
  • Encourage beneficial insects by planting members of the sunflower family (including zinnias, marigolds, Jerusalem artichokes and others)
  • Stake tomatoes, watch for blight (prune for air circulation, pick off affected leaves).
Our broccoli and leaf lettuce are doing nicely!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summer time and the living is blue

Our garden is at just about peak lush this month, so it’s a good time to illustrate one of my core design principles: Plant for color, texture and height contrasts.

I love the cooling effect of what I call the “blues” of selectively placed plants such as this Agapanthus, seen here through a screen of a coral Hesperaloe. These colors are in turn picked up by the orange pot filled with blue and orange balls of color and accented by the pink Echinacea or Cone Flower and the creamy white of the Lilies. Planning for vibrant layers gives the human eye lots to do and is refreshing to our spirit.

 

Exit Rain, Enter Weeds: June Gardening Tasks

As I look out at our Winterbloom landscape, I see abundant growth, color and wildlife activity, especially birds. I think the same Robin comes each spring to build a nest in the tree visible from our office window. Well, enough bird watching. Here are some June tasks for you:

  • This is the best month to plant the warm season annuals of flowers or vegetables: Eggplant, Tomato, Peppers, Corn, Basil, melons etc.
  • Mow regularly; set your lawn mower at the highest setting that you want for the rest of the summer until October. The longer grass helps to shade the roots and keeps the grass greener and healthier.
  • Keep up on the weeds. The rainy season is over and it will soon not be so much work.
  • Water as needed, one inch per week at least on the lawn, and about half an inch on the shrubs, is a standard rule of thumb.
  • Slug bait is still important to put out. Try to use safe pet bait.
  • Prune flowering shrubs or perennials after they bloom, as needed.
  • Check the leaves of your Rhodies and Azaleas to see if you need to do any weevil control such as nematodes or insect tape. If you see notches chewed out of the foliage, these pests have been there.
  • Also, check to see if you have lace bug damage on the leaves. It usually shows up later in the summer. They suck the Chlorophyll out of the leaf cells and make the leaves look hideous. They can be somewhat controlled by a predator called Green or Brown Lace Wings, which can be purchased locally.
  • If you want to make your Rhodies bloom more and look neater, it is time to dead head them.
  • Continue to take care of coddling moths and scab on apples and pears. Check to see how many times and how often.
  • It is time to thin out the fruits on pears and apples.
  • Spray for fruit flies on cherries.
  • Check for Aphids and cabbage worms and take action if needed on veggies or roses.

 

Around Winterbloom

This moment of peace is courtesy of Winterbloom and the European ground orchid

The Dactylorhiza maculata, or European ground orchid, requires relatively little care and adds a delicate touch of color and verticality to our planting beds.

Give them a half-day of sun and they’ll grow in, through and around your other plants.

They like our Willamette Valley climate of wet winters and dry summers, so consider giving them a try!

 

 

Brew Pub for Slugs?

Salt is good for killing slugs on the patio or sidewalk, but it kills plants in the garden. Some of our clients have used beer for their planting beds. Don’t waste the good stuff on them, though; buy the cheapest rot-gut you can find and pour it into shallow plastic tops or jar lids.  You should see results (we’ll leave it to your imagination what that means) by the next morning.

The Frogs Say It’s Spring!

You may be wondering, is it really spring?

Frog choruses aside, the temps have been below normal; a windstorm toppled fences and trees and thousands lost their power. Fear not! Nature is stirring. So, it’s time to gear up to:

  • Bait for slugs (and snails)!
  • Weed regularly now; this will pay off later.
  • Mow regularly and set your lawnmower higher than last month.
  • Leave the foliage of spring flowering bulbs and only cut off the seedpods after the blooms finish. (The foliage needs to recharge the bulbs for next year’s blooms.) I just wait and cut the foliage when it is yellow.
  • Prune and shape spring-blooming shrubs and trees right after the blossoms fade.
  • Plant gladiolas and dahlias for summer bloom.
  • Prepare the veggie garden for spring planting.
  • These vegetables may be planted this month if your garden is ready: Peas, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chard, chives, endive, kohlrabi, leeks, and lettuce, onion sets, parsnips, radishes, and rhubarb, turnips
  • Some early broccoli varieties that I have found successful are: Green Comet and Waltham 29
  • Check strawberries for spittlebugs and aphids; if present wash them off.
  • If spraying for apple scab; use lime/sulfur.
  • Control rose diseases such as black spot and mildew by removing infected leaves, and prune for air circulation.

Around Winterbloom

Peony Yachiyo-tsubaki – Japanese Tree Peony

Yes, this Peony is called a tree, though it grows in a shrub like manner. It graces one of our front yard planting beds and is adding a delicate pop of color.

This variety has double to semi-double flowers with silky pink petals accented by bright yellow centers. The bronze foliage transitions to red in winter.

It is a deciduous perennial that is long lived and well suited for your mixed borders or woodland settings. It needs regular watering, which means weekly, or more often in the summertime heat.


 

 

Thanks for Being a Good Neighbor

It warmed my heart to receive this thank you message: “Phil, I want to thank you for donating plants for our yard. They are planted and growing! They have brought me so much happiness already. Thank you for being the Lord’s hands; also, thank you for raising a wonderful daughter. She as your kind heart. Serenity has been one of my greatest blessings since moving to this neighborhood.”

And here’s another: “Thank you Phil.  I cannot tell you what a pleasure it was to work with you, Miriam, Eric, and the entire Winterbloom team.  My hope is that Peter and I will be able to enjoy the tranquility of our yards for years to come.  Peter has not seen the completed project but I have conveyed to him how awesome everything looks.   Thank you again for the roses and for making the change.”

Mulch, Schmultz

Recently I walked with two clients while discussing their harshly sterile, bare, sloping, side yard; where soil was eroding down onto the public sidewalk. It was slippery and muddy and very unattractive.

One of them brought up the idea of a nice boulder retaining wall set next to the sidewalk, which would help to hold back the soil.

The other remarked “But that would cost a lot of money and we are not ready to spend that right now, even though it might solve a lot of the problem with our sloping, ugly, side yard and would look good to the neighbors.”

The slope was not so steep that it would not be walkable, and they could have installed a lawn to hold the soil back from washing onto the sidewalk. However, they did not want to plant grass. The idea of mowing a sloping side lawn, which they would not use, did not appeal to them. I suggested a much less expensive option of placing a two to three-inch layer of bark mulch on the bare soil.

They wondered what I meant by mulch.

Mulch is any material placed on the ground which, when spread around in a fairly uniform layer, will insulate, protect or enrich the soil. Examples of mulch are: leaves, tree bark, compost, shredded paper, wood chips, wood shavings, shredded cardboard or nut hulls/shells.

Here are some examples:

Compost mulch will enrich the soil by feeding its resident population of micro flora and fauna; preventing the bare soil from eroding; helping to retain moisture in the dry periods; and suffocating weeds. It is a temporary fix however, because most good compost will be quickly broken down and eaten by the micro flora and fauna. Its nutritional benefits will then be available to the roots of the plants underground, but the erosion protection, the retention of moisture and particularly the positive effect of the weed suffocation will be gone very quickly. It is a common mulch used around plants with a final layer of bark mulch placed on top.

Leaf mulch is as you may guess, a collection of fall leaves that will quite possibly last the winter and into early spring. They will provide erosion protection during the rainy season and if they last long enough into the early part of the dry season, provide moisture retention as well. However, leaf mulch is also generally temporary. Shredded fall leaves or thinly placed grass clippings are excellent as far as nutrition goes, but have an even shorter life span for the other functions wanted from mulch, as this product is the most delicious to micro flora and fauna.

Straw mulch/hay mulch is occasionally available as an option. It is moderately slow to break down, but it carries many, many seeds. Therefore, it might best be used in a large commercial setting where there is a large expanse of soil that needs to be protected from erosion, but the owner is not picky about every kind of meadow plant imaginable germinating everywhere. This is not a product ever recommended for suburban planting beds.

Bark mulch can be excellent on all accounts and comes in various colors, grind sizes and tree types.

  • The most common type is fresh Douglas fir. It is reddish in color and slow to break down. It is the least expensive of the bark products. The micro flora and fauna must work hard to break it down and, as they do, they extract nitrogen from the air and soil. That’s why, with this type of bark, you’ll need to use a fertilizer with nitrogen to keep your plant leaves from yellowing. Another negative aspect of Douglas fir bark is its tendency to be splintery. Dark fir bark has less splinters and is a dark blackish red. This is so because it is already partially broken down and not fresh. Therefore, it does not rob as much nitrogen from the soil, but of course it also does not last as long.
  • Bark nuggets are usually derived from pine bark and provide the same results as red Doug fir bark but do not offer any splinters. Some people like this look, but one must place it rather thickly to provide good moisture retention during the dry season; as there are usually no smaller parts to create a sealing blanket, just bigger chunks. It is more expensive in the Willamette Valley, than the other bark products, since it is normally trucked in from eastern Oregon.
  • Hemlock bark, either fresh or dark is another option. It has almost no splinters. As in all bark products it can be found as fresh or dark, and in either a fine, medium or coarse “grind.” That means the average size of the material itself. Fine has a very smooth look on the ground but can wash or blow away, as well as break down more easily than the medium or the coarse. Medium is the most common as it has a mix of fine, medium and some coarse. Coarse grind appears very chunky on the surface of the soil but is the slowest to break down. Again, fresh hemlock breaks down more slowly than dark hemlock bark. Winterbloom’s most commonly requested mulch is medium dark hemlock, as it seems to have the best of all qualities. It is also the most expensive of all the bark products.

Nut hulls such as filbert (Hazelnut) shells, may be used as a mulch. in the Willamette Valley this is most available from filbert orchards or nut drying operations. It is a product that breaks down very slowly and is often used for paths as an organic option to crushed gravel. It has a coarse texture. A more expensive, but very fragrant and tempting product, is cocoa bean hulls. It has been found however, to be attractive, to dogs. As it can damage their intestines, it is now being discouraged as a mulch for dog owners.

Chips are a not uncommon mulch. It is coarsely chopped debris derived from tree or shrub removal. How long it lasts depends on whether it has a higher concentration of wood or of leaves. I have found that it is very similar in effect, but not look, to fresh fir bark. It does not have the fine splinters of fir but it also does not have fir’s nice uniform effect; rather a wild tousled appearance with many textures and sizes. Winterbloom generally uses this only to mulch natural areas or for woodland paths. We do not generally use it in suburban planting beds.

Cedar or wood shavings from a wood or lumber mill is another option for a mulch. It breaks down very slowly and is quite soft in function and appearance. It is often used as a surface for play areas as it is not splintery or rough. It is not used as a mulch in suburban planting beds.

Garden mulch from a recycle yard is also a common mulch that is very reasonably priced for planting beds. It is the ground and partially composted debris from city and suburban yards. It is black in color, has more of an odor than the bark products, but breaks down a little faster than the medium dark hemlock.

The composts, chips, garden mulch and all the types of bark may be blown onto planting beds. This is an easier way to spread the mulch versus using wheelbarrows, rakes, forks and shovels. It is also more economical than paying a landscaper to do the same task. Also, if you use a reputable company to blow on the mulch, they will generally clean up well and only the smallest, most fragile plants may be damaged or killed. These should be temporarily protected with overturned pots by you, the homeowner or designer.

Winter Pruning: It’s All About the Timing

Take a serious look out your windows at your back yard landscape. What do you see? Are the perennials all shriveled and black looking? Are some bushes falling over on top of others?

When you drive into your driveway, what does the front yard and entry-way look like? Is there dead and brown-looking foliage? Are there bushes trying to obscure your windows or push you off the front walkway or sidewalk?

If you imagine tackling all of this in one day, you may feel overwhelmed. However, nothing much is going to grow out there until around March and even then, just a few things will be pushing buds.

So, start with what you see when you drive in the driveway and tackle a section of that when you have a block of time. Then do the other half the next opportunity. When the front is completed, tackle the back yard. Do all of this pruning a section at a time until it is done. Lastly, take on all of those plants that may need attention that you don’t see out your windows. By the time that you do all of this, it will be March and you will have accomplished your tasks!

Here is how you can do this.

  • Cut back the perennials that are brown and ugly and leave about one inch of stem. I simply chop the foliage into two inch pieces and leave them lying on the ground, but you may want to haul them off to the recycle bin.
  • Prune and thin the late season shrubs like Hydrangea and Crape Myrtle.
  • Avoid early spring bloomers like Flowering Quince, Lilac, Forsythia and Daphne, as you will be cutting off their bloom buds, which you are looking forward to seeing! Wait to prune them until right after they bloom and then you will be fitting into their life cycle.
  • Remember to wait on roses till February around President’s Day. If the roses are tall right now and the wind is catching them, cut them back about a 1/3, but in general, roses need to be as dormant as possible for serious pruning.
  • Do not shear any of your plants unless they have tiny leaves and you want a hedge type of look. (Shears are like big scissors). Normally one will prune everything with hand clippers or loppers.
  • If you have big overgrown plants which need rejuvenating, this is the time of the year to do that. (Rejuvenating means cutting back hard with a saw or loppers, so that new growth can occur in the spring). Please note that:
  • If you do it now, you will be looking at the brown stumps till spring, so you may want to take care of this project in March.
  • If you find that you need to regularly cut a plant back this hard, it is probably not located in the right place and should be removed. A new plant or plants should be chosen to take its place, which would be more suitable and manageable.

Approaching your pruning in this fashion at the beginning of January about guarantees that it will all be done by March!

How to Take the Stress Out of Maintaining Your Yard

We’re deep into the holiday season and no one seems to have the time to cut back the perennials, grasses or overgrown bushes while neatening up the beds. Of course, the heavy rains we’ve been having also contribute to our disinclination!

Our front yard, which is visible to us as we drive in, as well as to all our guests, needs to look trimmed and tidy for the Holiday season. That is a given. However, we have learned a trick to get through this time of year: We don’t stress about the entire rest of the yard, which cannot really be seen from inside, if at all.

After the first of the year, I take a hard look at the rest of the yard space. I imagine how many weekends I have ahead of me in order to tackle the work before February 15th. That magical date is the beginning of landscapers’ spring in western Oregon; when many sleepy tender perennials and bulbs are just tentatively extending buds out into the world. It is paramount that we trim and clean before they begin their quest. This gives us about 6 weekends!

I divide the yard up into these weekend chunks, tackling a section/weekend until it has all been completed. Doing it this way, I can usually get what needs to be done in a four-hour block of time each weekend, leaving the rest for other activities.

There is always an emotional letdown after the holidays and this task fills a portion of each weekend, allowing me to retrench and to reload emotionally. It is exercise for which I do not have to pay, without holiday advertisements or digital overloads. it is out in the fresh air and rain. All of these are excellent for my state of mind as I launch into the New Year!

It’s Fall: Gardeners, Get Out Your Pruners!

Let’s talk about pruning, which is accomplished with two main methods:

  • Shearing with a pair of shears. This is normally used with plants that need to be shaped on the outside to some form like a hedge or a topiary. It is best done with plants that have small leaves or tiny foliage to really look good.  Pruning in this fashion causes a plant to thicken up and have many points of growth. Lavender, heather, boxwood and sometimes evergreen azaleas are common examples of plants that respond well to this method of pruning.  Used indiscriminately, however, this can create the lollipop and gumdrop look that some people like and most people hate.
  • Trimming, or selectively or thinning. This type of pruning is accomplished with clippers for smaller branches, loppers for thicker branches or a saw for the biggest branches.  Trimming’s main function is to select out a branch or a twig and remove it to create more internal space. The best miniature example would be a Bonsai plant.  Others that can really look good with this kind of pruning are upright Japanese maples, rhododendron (but not until it is finished blooming in the spring), or a vine maple. Trimming is pruning from the inside out. Most plants would look their best using this method. Don’t let your enthusiasm get the better of you, however, and avoid pruning spring blooming plants, such as Rhodies or azaleas during the fall. If you cut off the buds now, you won’t have any glorious blooms come next spring.

In late fall, your pruning efforts should be spent on perennials that have just finished blooming, and certain types of shrubs, such as mop head hydrangeas. Clear away the brown foliage and any seed pods (think, Echinacea, or cone flowers), if the birds haven’t already done that for you.

Here’s how I shear my lavender this time of year:

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